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Science Current Affairs Quiz - August 2018

Home > Current Affairs > Science Current Affairs Quiz - August 2018

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1. NASA confirmed that there are frozen water deposits in darkest and coolest parts of Moon’s Polar Regions, using data from India's Chandrayaan-I spacecraft.

  1. Chandrayaan-I spacecraft was launched in _____________________ by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).
  2. At the southern pole of moon, most of ice is concentrated at lunar craters, while northern pole’s ice is more widely and lightly spread.
  3. Most of the newfound water ice lies in shadows of craters near poles, where warmest temperatures never reach above minus 156 degrees Celsius (-250 degrees Fahrenheit).
2008
2018
2004
2012
None of These


2. A new Clot buster, PEGylated Streptokinase - a Novel Biological Entity developed by CSIR (____________________________) has been developed, to revolutionize treatment of ischemic strokes, a condition caused by a dysfunction in supply of blood to the brain. Prevalence of stroke is much higher in India than West and about 87% of all strokes are ischemic strokes.

  1. CSIR-IMTECH and Epygen Biotech Mumbai signed an agreement to develop PEGylated Streptokinase for treatment of Ischemic Stroke.
  2. PEGylated Streptokinase (novel recombinant protein Thrombolytic molecule) is engineered for enhanced proteolytic stability and extended plasma half-life, with reduced immuno-reactivity which would have significant clinical advantages.
Committee of Scientific & Industrial Research
Council of Social & Industrial Research
Council of Scientific & Industrial Research
Council of Scientific & Internal Research
None of These


3. __________________________India’s first mission to study solar corona, will be launched in 2019-2020, by Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-XL).

  1. It will be inserted in a halo orbit around the Lagrangian point 1 (L1), 1.5 million km from Earth. Solar corona is outer layers of the Sun.
  2. Lagrangian point where attraction by Sun and Earth becomes equal. This point does not experience gravitational force. It will observe Sun’s Photosphere and Chromosphere and will also conduct additional experiments.
  3. It will have 6 additional payloads -
    1. Visible Emission Line Coronagraph (VELC)– to study the diagnostic parameters of solar corona and dynamics and origin of Coronal Mass Ejections.
    2. Solar Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (SUIT)– to image the Solar Photosphere and Chromosphere in near Ultraviolet (200-400 nm) and measure solar irradiance variations.
    3. Aditya Solar wind Particle Experiment (ASPEX) – to study the variation of solar wind properties and its distribution and spectral characteristics.
    4. Plasma Analyser Package for Aditya (PAPA)– to understand the composition of solar wind and its energy distribution.
    5. Solar Low Energy X-ray Spectrometer (SoLEXS)– to monitor the X-ray flares to study the heating mechanism of solar corona.
    6. High Energy L1 Orbiting X-ray Spectrometer (HEL1OS)– to observe the dynamic events in the solar corona and estimate the energy used to accelerate the particles during eruptive events.
    7. Magnetometer– to measure the magnitude and nature of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field.
Chandrayaan-L2
Surya-L1
Chandrayaan-L1
Aditya-L1
None of These


4. __________________ researchers have announced that they have developed a new technique to detect early-stage cancer tumour cells in the blood through malaria protein VAR2CSA. In this, VAR2CSA sticks to cancer cells and helps detect more number of cancer cells than before.

Austrian
Russian
Finnish
Swedish
Australian


5. ISRO postponed Chandrayaan-2, India’s second mission to moon to ________________________ 3, 2019, as 2nd time the mission is postponed. Chandrayaan 2 is advanced version of Chandrayaan-1 mission (launched in 2008) which only involved orbiting around moon.

  1. Chandrayaan-2 involves an orbiter, lander and rover. In this, ISRO will for first time attempt to land rover on moon’s south-pole. It involves soft-landing on lunar surface and rover that will walk and analysis content on moon’s surface. It will be launched on board of Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mk III (GSLV-F10).
  2. Soft-landing on moon surface will be most complex part. Only US, Russia and China have been able to soft-land spacecraft on lunar surface.
  3. Space Commission also approved ISRO’s proposal of naming Chandrayaan-2 lander ‘Vikram’ after Vikram Sarabhai, father of Indian space programme.
February
March
January
April
None of These


6. India's Ranjit Srivastava (Ranchi) has developed __________________, India’s first humanoid robot, which can speak Hindi, Bhojpuri, Marathi and English. It uses linguistic interpretation (LI), artificial intelligence (AI), visual data and facial recognition systems.

Rashmi
Asha
Swatah
Kiran
None of These


7. Indian Council for Agricultural Research (ICAR) discovered an invasive agricultural pest Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) in ___________________. A major maize pest in North America, Fall Armyworm arrived in Africa in 2016. The pest feeds on around 100 different crops, such as vegetables, rice, and sugarcane and it spreads in no time. Karnataka finding is the first report of the pest in Asia.

Kerala
Karnataka
Telangana
Andhra Pradesh
None of These


8. Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)'s heaviest satellite so far - GSAT-11 (weighing over ________________________ kg), will take off a spaceport in French Guiana on 30 November. GSAT-11 is capable of providing high bandwidth connectivity with up to 14 GB per second data transfer speed.

  1. ISRO will also launch incubators across India to support startups working on building newer solutions in rocketry, communication satellites and applications based on remote sensing data.
5700
2700
3700
4700
None of These


9. Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) unveiled details of its first indigenous human space mission dubbed as Gaganyaan to be launched in ____________________, announced by PM Narendra Modi during his 72nd Independence Day speech.

  1. Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) will outsource production of the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicles (PSLV) and Small Satellite Launch Vehicles (SSLVs) to private Industries.
  2. 3 Indian astronauts will be taken to space on board Gaganyaan spacecraft by 2022, as first human space mission to be indigenously developed by ISRO.
  3. India will become fourth nation in the world to send astronaut into space after US, Russia and China.
  4. Rakesh Sharma was first Indian to travel to space, as part of the Soviet Union’s Soyuz T-11 expedition, launched on April 2, 1984, of the Intercosmos programme.
  5. Cost of Gaganyaan mission will be less than Rs 10,000 crore. Prior to actual launch, ISRO will launch two unmanned Gaganyaan missions (first in 30 months’ time and then 36 months).
  6. GSLV Mk-III launch vehicle will be used to launch Gaganyaan as it has necessary payload capability for mission.
  7. ISRO also announced to outsource production of the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicles (PSLV) and Small Satellite Launch Vehicles (SSLVs) to private Industries.
2022
2020
2025
2028
None of These


10. India’s first captive-born Humboldt Penguin named Freedom Baby died barely a week after it was born at Veermata Jijabai Bhosale Udyan and Zoo (Byculla zoo) (_______________________). It was named Freedom Baby as it was born on Independence Day. It was the first Humboldt Penguin to born in captivity in India.

  1. Byculla zoo imported 8 Humboldt Penguins from South Korea in July 2016, kept thereafter in special enclosure where average temperature of 16-18 degrees celsius is maintained.
  2. Humboldt penguin is named after the cold water current (Humboldt current) it swims in. It is native to South America and breeds in coastal Chile and Peru.
Kerala
Karnataka
Odisha
Maharashtra
None of These


11. ___________ Updates -

  1. Designed 2 virtual reality applications named Selfies app and Exoplanet Excursions, to celebrate 15th anniversary of the Spitzer Space Telescope.
    1. Selfies app users can take selfies in a virtual spacesuit and can pose in front of various cosmic locations.
    2. Exoplanet Excursions takes the users on a virtual guided tour of the TRAPPIST-1 planetary system.
  2. Detected signs of water above Jupiter’s Great Red Spot, a storm that has been persistent for more than 350 years. The pressure of water combined with measurements of carbon monoxide, show that Jupiter has 2 to 9 times more oxygen than Sun.
  3. It’s First asteroid sampling spacecraft OSIRIS-REx captured first images of its target asteroid Bennu (from a distance of 2.1 million KMs) and began its final approach towards it after almost two-year journey.
    1. OSIRIS-Rex stands for Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer. kilometre. It was launched in September 2016 for studying 101955 Bennu, a carbonaceous asteroid.
    2. It is scheduled to reach asteroid in 2018 and return to Earth after collecting some of its gravels by 2023.
    3. Bennu is near-Earth carbonaceous asteroid about the size of a small mountain in the Apollo group. It was discovered in September 1999 by the LINEAR Project. It is carbon-rich asteroid and believed to be the type of asteroids that may have chemical building blocks of life, along with lots of water.
ISRO
ROSCOMOS
ESA
NASA
None of These


12. National Wildlife Genetic Resource Bank inaugurated at Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology’s (CCMB) Laboratory of Conservation of Endangered Species (LaCONES) facility in Hyderabad (_______________________), as India’s first genetic resource bank where genetic material will be stored for posterity which will further the cause of conservation of endangered and protected animals.

  1. It is equipped with sophisticated equipment to preserve the genetic resources that could be utilised to virtually resurrect an animal species in case it goes extinct. It will cryopreserve living cell lines, gametes and embryos of endangered wild animal species in India.
Kerala
Telanagana
Karnataka
Andhra Pradesh
None of These


13. Researchers at University of Oxford (_________________) developed a new technology that can detect patients with the risk of deadly heart attacks, well in advance. It uses a new biomarker named the Fat Attenuation Index (FAI). It analyzes computed tomography (CT) images of fat around arteries to detect the inflamed plaques that can cause heart attacks.

France
Spain
Russia
USA
UK


14. Researchers from ____________________’s Centre for Excellence in Molecular Plant Sciences created the world’s first single-chromosome yeast, while not affecting the majority of its functions. Experiment was conducted on Brewer’s yeast having 16 chromosomes and which shares its one-third genome ancestry with humans. Researchers were able to fit nearly all genetic material of Brewer’s yeast into just one chromosome.

China
Japan
Vietnam
Malaysia
None of These


15. Researchers from City University of __________________ (CityU) developed world's first-ever 4D printing for ceramics that can be used to create complex, shape-changing objects.

  1. 4D printing is conventional 3D printing combined with the additional element of time as the fourth dimension, where printed objects can re-shape or self-assemble themselves over time with external stimuli, such as mechanical force, temperature, or a magnetic field.
  2. Existing 3D-printed ceramic precursors, which are usually difficult to deform, also hinder the production of ceramics with complex shapes.  To overcome these, researchers developed a novel 'ceramic ink', a mixture of polymers and ceramic nanoparticles.
  3. Applications include Printed ceramic precursors can be used in manufacturing of electronic devices. Ceramic materials have much better performance in transmitting electromagnetic signals than metallic materials.
  4. The artistic nature of ceramics and their capability to form complex shapes also provide the potential for consumers to tailor-make uniquely designed ceramic mobile phone back plates.
Beijing
Tokyo
Hanoi
Hong Kong
None of These


16. Researchers from Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) _______________ developed first of family of six industry-standard microprocessors under Project Shakti. The initial batch of 300 chips have been named RISECREEK and have been fabricated at Intel’s facility at Oregon, US for free to run Linux operating system.

Kharagpur
Mumbai
Madras
Dharwad
None of These


17. Researchers from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (____________________) developed a wireless 'in-body GPS' system that can track tumours and pinpoint location of ingestible implants inside body. In tests conducted on animals, system called ‘ReMix’ was found to be able to track implants with centimetre-level accuracy. It could be used to deliver drugs to specific regions in the body, and ease up the healing process.

UK
USA
Russia
Spain
None of These


18. Researchers from University of Minnesota (___________________) found a way to 3D print light receptors on a curved glass surface in a medical technology which could be used to produce a 'bionic eye'.

UK
USA
Bulgaria
Croatia
None of These


19. Researchers from over 20 nations have first time have decoded wheat genome, with highest quality genome sequence generated to date for such wheat variety. Reference genome decoded covers ___________________ (14.5 Gb) of decoding of Chromosome 2A of wheat genome.

  1. It will help to identify genes controlling complex agronomic traits such as yield, grain quality, resistance to diseases and pests as well as tolerance to drought, heat, water logging and salinity.
  2. Availability of high quality reference genome will accelerate breeding of climate-resilient wheat varieties to feed ever-increasing world population and help address global food security in decades to come.
74 %
24 %
84 %
94 %
None of These


20. Scientists at University of Texas at San Antonio (________________________) have set a new Guinness World Record by creating the smallest medical robot — a device measuring just 120 nanometres that could assist in future cancer and Alzheimer’s treatments.

USA
UK
Russia
Spain
None of These


21. Scientists developed Aerogel, a transparent heat-resistant super-insulating gel using beer waste. It may be used to build greenhouse-like habitats for human colonization on extraterrestrial habitats.

  1. Aerogels defining feature is air, as it comprise at least ____________________ gas by weight. Their thin films are made up of crisscrossing patterns of solid material that trap air inside billions of tiny pores, similar to bubbles in bubble wrap. This trapping capacity makes them good insulators.
  2. It could also be used on buildings on Earth to help make huge savings on energy costs. It enables to harvest sunlight through thermally-insulating material and store energy inside, protecting from big oscillations in temperature.
90%
60%
70%
50%
None of These


22. Scientists discovered a beetle trapped in amber that dates back to 99 million years, in __________________. It may help better understand relationship between ancient flowering plants and pollinators.

  1. It uncovers earliest definitive fossil evidence of relationship between cycads and insects. Cycads are a group of unusual evergreen gymnosperms that may have been first insect-pollinated plants.
  2. The found beetle preserved in Burmese amber for an estimated 99 million years, is named Cretoparacucujus cycadophilus.
Thailand
Myanmar
Indonesia
Malaysia
None of These


23. __________________ Scientists identified 3 new species of ancient primates that were earlier unknown, and have named them: Ekwiiyemakius walshi, Gunnelltarsius randalli and Brontomomys cerutti. They lived 42 to 46 million years ago.

France
Russia
UK
US
None of These


24. ________________ scientists created a platinum-gold alloy, named as most wear-resistant metal in world. It is the first alloy in the same class as diamond and sapphire, and has been 100 times more durability than high-strength steel. With platinum-gold coating, several electronic productas can be made more cost-effective, long-lasting and dependable.

France
Spain
Russia
UK
US


25. USA's National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched Parker Solar Probe, a $1.5 billion spacecraft, aimed at looking after several factors of sun which are crucial to protect Earth by unveiling mysteries of dangerous solar storms.

  1. It is Humanity's first-ever mission to Touch the Sun. It will fly through Sun’s atmosphere as close as 3.8 million miles from its surface, much closer than any spacecraft has come before.
  2. Parker Solar Probe launched aboard a Delta IV-Heavy rocket from Cape Canaveral (USA).
  3. It will use Venus’ gravity during seven flybys over nearly seven years to gradually bring its orbit closer to Sun. Earth’s average distance to Sun is 93 million miles.
  4. Why wont it Melt -
    1. Parker Solar Probe will provide unprecedented observations of what drives the wide range of particles, energy and heat that course through Sun's Corona, which has temparature of approx ________________________________ Degrees and sends particles outward into solar system.
    2. Parker Solar Probe has can withstand extreme temperature and fluctuations, with its custom heat shield that helps protect mission it from Sun’s intense light emission.
    3. The key Lies in concept of heat versus temperature -
      1. High temperatures do not always translate to actually heating another object. In space, temperature can be thousands of degrees without providing significant heat to a given object or feeling hot, as Temperature measures how fast particles are moving, whereas heat measures total amount of energy they transfer.
      2. Particles may be moving fast (high temperature), but if there are very few of them, they won’t transfer much energy (low heat). Since space is mostly empty, there are very few particles that can transfer energy to spacecraft.
      3. Sun's Corona has an extremely high temperature but very low density, so spacecraft interacts with fewer hot particles and doesn’t receive as much heat.
      4. It Means that while Parker Solar Probe will be travelling through space with temperatures of several million degrees, surface of heat shield that faces the Sun will only get heated to about 1,400 degrees Celsius. Shild uses a Thermal Protection System, (8 feet (2.4 meters) in diameter and 4.5 inches (about 115 mm) thick), allowing the other side of shield, the spacecraft body to be at comfortable 30 C.
  5. Other Facts about mission -
    1. Naming - Eugene Newman Parker is person on whose name the Mission is named. In mid 1950s, he proposed a number of concepts about how stars — including our sun — give off energy. He called this cascade of energy the solar wind.
    2. Cost is approx $1.5 Billion USD.
    3. In its seven-year mission, Probe will make six more Venus flybys and 24 total passes by Sun, journeying steadily closer to Sun until it makes its closest approach at 3.8 million miles (6.16 million km ).  It will be moving at roughly 430000 miles per hour, setting record of being the fastest human-made object ever. 
    4. It is expected to transmit its first science observations in December 2018.
2000
16000
6000
60000
None of These


26. University of Chicago (______________________) identified a ‘zombie’ gene that makes elephants nearly immune to cancer. In response to DNA damage, a tumour-suppressing protein wakes up the non-functioning gene called LIF6 to kill cancer-prone cells.

USA
UK
Russia
Spain
None of These




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