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Science Current Affairs Quiz - April 2019

Home > Current Affairs > Science Current Affairs Quiz - April 2019

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1. ISRO Launched EMISAT and 28 international customer satellites from Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) SHAR in Sriharikota (Andhra Pradesh), onboard Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-C45).

  1. EMISAT is a satellite built around ISRO’s Mini Satellite-2 bus weighing about ______________________ kg. It is intended for electromagnetic spectrum measurement. EMISAT was put in a 748 km sun-synchronous polar orbit. 
  2. 28 international customer satellites, together weighing about 220 kg, are from four countries - Lithuania (2), Spain (1), Switzerland (1) and USA (24).
  3. In ISRO's next mission, PSLV-C46 will launch RISAT-2B in May 2019.
436
123
136
497
None of These


2. International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has listed Hump-backed Mahseer as Critically Endangered in Red List of Threatened Species. Hump-backed Mahseer is a species of freshwater ray-finned fish and is referred to as tiger of the water, found only in _______________ river basin including Pambar, Kabini and Bhavani rivers.

Ganga
Yamuna
Cauvery 
Indus
None of These


3. ______________ approved sale of 24 multi-role MH-60R Seahawk maritime helicopters to India at an estimated cost of USD 2.6 billion, boosting Indian Navy's anti-surface and anti-submarine warfare operationns.

Israel
Russia
UK
USA
None of These


4. __________________ (CCMB) scientists discovered a new enzyme called “Murein EndopeptidiaseK”, paving way for a new drug treatment that prevents anti-bacterial resistance by existing antibiotics. It would act on the protein of cell wall in Escherichia coli (E. coli), a bacterium found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms.

Center for Cell and Molecular Bureau
Center for Core and Material Biology
Center for Core and Molecular Biology
Center for Cell and Material Biology
Center for Cell and Molecular Biology


5. ___________________ Aerospace Exploration Agency spacecraft Hayabusa2 blasted surface of an asteroid for the first time to form a crater. Spacecraft will collect its underground samples to find possible clues to origin of solar system.

Vietnam
China
Japan
Russia
None of These


6. Scientists at Tsinghua University and _____________________ Academy of Sciences' have discovered a possible death switch mechanism in plant's immune system that triggers infected cells to self-destruct, thus limiting the spread of the disease and keeping other parts of the plant healthy. 

  1. Researchers discovered that some plants have evolved to carry a resistance protein called ZAR1 that can detect bacterial proteins like AvrAC. These plants use special proteins as bait and trick the bacterial protein into attacking them instead. 
  2. the discovery will provide clues to cell death control and immunity for plants.
Chinese
Japanese
Russian
South African
None of These


7. ___________________ scientists at Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research stated that there is more Carbon dioxide (CO2) in our atmosphere than in past 3 million years. As per report, CO2 levels should not be higher than 280 ppm without human activity, but currently it’s 410 ppm and rising.

Spanish
Germany
Russian
Polish
None of These


8. A 40 million-year-old fossil of a whale-with-four-legs, webbed feet and hooves has been excavated by palaeontologists from marine sediments inland from _________________’s Pacific coast at Playa Media Luna. The whale belongs to a biological group of ancient sea mammals, termed as Archaeocetes. The 13 feet long mammal has been named as “Peregocetus pacificus”.

Peru
Bolivia
Argentina
Bulgaria
None of These


9. Alberta University (________________________) paleontologists discovered 95 million-year-old coin-sized ‘cartoon-eyed’ crab species called Callichimaeraperplexa. Its name is an allusion to a Greek mythological creature & means “perplexing beautiful chimera.

Canada
USA
UK
Russia
None of These


10. An international collaboration of 20 research organizations led by ________________-based International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) identified climate resilient genes in chickpea.

  1. Study based on complete genome sequencing of 429 chickpea lines from 45 different countries, identified that chickpea has four important genes for heat tolerance and three important genes for drought tolerance. It will help in developing newer chickpea varieties which can tolerate temperatures up to 38°C.
  2. Identification of other genes with important agronomic traits (high yield, test weight, kernel weight, maturity, plant height, and lodging resistance) will help in increasing crop yield and providing better resistance to pests and diseases.
  3. Chickpea is an annual legume of Fabaceae family and is highly rich in protein. It is also known by name of gram, Bengal Gram, Garbanzo, Garbanzo bean, and Egyptian pea.
Patna
Pune
Delhi
Hyderabad
None of These


11. __________________ (CSIR) has undertaken an indigenous genetic mapping effort to educate a generation of students on “usefulness” of genomics. Under this, approx 1,000 rural youth will have their genomes sequenced by CSIR. Those recruited as part of genome-sample collections are representative of the country’s population diversity and the bulk of them will be college students.

Council of Scientific and International Research
Council of Scientific and Internal Research
Committee of Scientific and Industrial Research
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
None of These


12. European Space Agency (ESA) and ____________________ Aerospace Exploration Agency’s Jointly launched Mission BepiColombo has completed series of tests, and is now ready for its crusie to Mercury.

  1. It comprises of two satellites launched together - Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) and Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO).
  2. Launched in October 2018, it is expected to arrive at Mercury in 2025. It will endure temperatures in excess of 350 °C. Later, BepiColombo will also perform first of its two flybys of Venus — the second planned for August 2021.
China
Japan
Vietnam
Myanmar
None of These


13. IIT _______________________ researcher developed a method for reading documents in Bharati Script by using a multi-lingual optical character recognition (OCR) scheme. Bharati is a unified script for nine Indian languages which is being proposed as a common script for India. The integrated script includes Devnagari, Bengali, Gurmukhi, Gujarati, Oriya, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam and Tamil.

  1. Many European languages use Roman script as a common script, which eases communication across all nations using those languages. Similarly, in India, a common script can bring down many communication barriers here.
Gandhnagar
Ropar
Roorkee
Delhi
Madras


14. In Mariana Trench (Deepest part of Earth’s oceans, approximately __________________ metres) of Western Pacific Ocean, scientists (from Ocean University in Qingdao, China and University of East Anglia in Norwich, England) discovered a unique hydrocarbon degrading oil-eating bacteria that can help in sustainable ways of cleaning up man-made oil spills.

  1. Hydrocarbons are organic compounds that are made of hydrogen and carbon atoms, and are found mostly in crude oil and natural gas.
11000
10000
9000
8000
None of These


15. Jamia Millia Islamia (_____________) Researchers have developed an ultrasensitive quantum thermometer by using graphene quantum dots. It can precisely measure a wide range of temperature from 27 degree C to –196 degree C. It has high sensitivity in different temperatures and has quick response time of about 300 milliseconds.

Kolkata
Patna
Pune
New Delhi
None of These


16. _____________ Aerospace Exploration Agency spacecraft Hayabusa2 blasted surface of an asteroid for the first time to form a crater. Spacecraft will collect its underground samples to find possible clues to origin of solar system.

  1. Hayabusa2 probe shot a projectile at Ryugu asteroid around 340 million kilometers from Earth, as part of the probes mission to explore origin of life and evolution of the solar system.
  2. Mission is scheduled to return to Earth with its samples in 2020.
China
Vietnam
Japan
Myanmar
None of These


17. Last known female member of Yangtze giant softshell ____________________, aged 90 years old, died in Suzhou Zoo, China. Now, only three members of this species are left in world. It has been declared world’s most critically endangered turtle species.

Lizard
Turtle
Monkey
Orangutan
None of These


18._______________ Updates -

  1. Mars InSight lander of ________________ recorded first “marsquake,” quake on mars due to volcanic eruptions or land tides. It equals a 2.5 magnitude earthquake came on earth. It has been detected by lander’s Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure (SEIS) instrument.
  2. Announced that SpaceX will fly its Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) planetary-defence mission, with total launch cost approx $69 million. DART is a planned space probe that will demonstrate kinetic effects of crashing an impactor spacecraft into an asteroid moon for planetary defense purposes.
    1. The mission is intended to test whether a spacecraft impact could successfully deflect an asteroid on a collision course with Earth.
    2. DART will be will launched in June 2021. It will slam into “Didymoon,” 540-foot-wide (165 meters) satellite of near-Earth asteroid Didymos which is located at about 4 million miles from Eart in October 2022.
    3. Scientists will measure change in Didymoon’s orbit around the asteroid.
    4. Scientists hope to move it by just a fraction of a per cent off its path, which is enough to deflect any future asteroids off course since Didymos poses no threat to Earth.
  3. Found long sought evidence of universe's earliest molecule, the helium hydride ion. Scientists found it in NGC 7027, a planetary nebula (a remnant of a Sun-like star) located 3,000 light-years away. NASA used its Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) to detect the primordial molecule.
    1. Scientists suspected that, around 100,000 years after big bang, helium and hydrogen combined to form the first molecule, helium hydride. That helped the universe begin to cool and led to the formation of stars. But, despite decades of searching, scientists could never locate helium hydride in space - until now.
  4. Revealed that Mercury, the smallest planet in the solar system has a massive solid inner core, based on data by Spacecraft MESSENGER that crashed in 2015 . New mission is on its way to Mercury, named ‘BepiColombo‘, as joint mission by European Space Agency (ESA) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA).
  5. _____________'s Antares rocket lifted off to International Space Station, carrying the Cygnus Cargo Spacecraft. The Spacecraft carried about 7,600 pounds of supplies and scientific experiments to station.
  6. ______________'s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) discovered an Earth-sized planet, HD 21749b and a “sub-Neptune” world, revolving around star HD 21749. It lies 53 light-years from Earth. HD 21749b is about 23 times heavier and 2.7 times wider than Earth. Its temperature is mostly around 150 degrees Celsius.
  7. _____________________’s Hubble Space Telescope ejected measurements validate that Universe is expanding about 9% faster than expected based on its trajectory seen shortly after big bang. Adam Riess and his SH0ES (Supernova, H0, for the Equation of State) Team examined light from 70 stars in our neighboring galaxy, Large Magellanic Cloud using DASH method.
ISRO
NASA
ROSCOMOS
ESA
None of These


19. Researchers at IIT __________________ found a new method to detect breast and ovarian cancer which is responsible for one-fifth of the cancer-related death across world. As opposed to traditional method using blood samples, researchers used whole saliva as a body fluid for early detection of breast and ovarian cancers.

Ropar
Kanpur
Delhi
Roorkee
None of These


20. Researchers at San Diego State University (__________________), detected new Neptune-to-Saturn size planet orbiting between two previously known planets Kepler-47b and Kepler-47c, using data from NASA’s Kepler Space Telescope. This new planet named as Kepler-47d. Its 7 times larger than Earth and also largest of 3 planets in Kepler-47 circumbinary system.

  1. Kepler-47 system is approximately 3.5 billion-years-old and it is 3,340 light years away in the direction of the constellation Cygnus.
  2. 3 Known planets in Kepler-47 are orbiting two suns.
USA
UK
Russia
Spain
None of These


21. Researchers at University of California (_____________________) created a 3D-printed device that that can produce electricity from falling snow. The device is small, inexpensive and does not need batteries, termed as snow-based triboelectric nanogenerator or snow TENG. It generates charge through static electricity and produces energy from electron-exchange.

USA
UK
Russia
Spain
None of These


22. Researchers at University of Wisconsin-Madison in ____________________ have manufactured a tiny spectrometer that can be used in smartphone-sized devices to identify dangerous chemicals based on a unique “fingerprint” of emitted and absorbed light. It uses hyperspectral imaging, collecting every information about each individual pixel in an image to identify materials.

UK
US
Russia
Spain
None of These


23. Researchers from Tel Aviv University(____________________________) have printed world’s first 3D vascularised engineered heart using a patient’s own cells and biological materials. During this, patient-specific biological materials served as bio-inks (substances made of sugars and proteins that can be used for 3D printing of complex tissue models).

  1. Even though people had managed to 3D-print structure of a heart in the past, but those attempts were not with cells or with blood vessels.
  2. The heart produced now by researchers is about the size of a rabbit’s.
  3. This underlines potential for engineering personalized tissue and organ replacement in the future.
  4. The challenge now is to teach the printed hearts “to behave” like real ones.
Russia
UK
USA
Israel
None of These


24. __________________'s largest moon Titan has small liquid lakes that run more than 100 metres deep, perched atop hills and filled with methane, scientists have found using data from NASA's Cassini spacecraft.

  1. Titan is only planetary body in our solar system other than Earth known to have stable liquid on its surface.
  2. Titan's hydrologic cycle works similarly to Earth's - with one major difference. Instead of water evaporating from seas, forming clouds and rain, Titan does it all with methane and ethane.
  3. Scientists earlier knew that much larger northern seas are filled with methane, but finding smaller northern lakes filled mostly with methane was a surprise.
  4. Cassini arrived in Saturn system in 2004 and ended its mission in 2017 by deliberately plunging into Saturn's atmosphere. It mapped more than 1.6 million square kilometers of liquid lakes and seas on Titan's surface.
Mars
Venus
Pluto
Jupiter
Saturn


25. Scientists at University of Edinburgh (______________________) found a new state of physical matter recently which is solid and liquid at the same time. Findings reveal that when applying high pressures and temperatures to potassium (and possibly some other metals too), it creates a state in which most of the element's atoms form a solid lattice structure.

  1. Between 20,000 - 40,000 times atmospheric pressure and 400 to 800 Kelvin (260 to 980 degrees Fahrenheit), potassium entered what’s called a chain-melted state, in which the chains dissolved into liquid while the remaining potassium crystals stayed solid.
The Netherlands
Poland
Scotland
Belgium
None of These


26. Scientists discovered a new ancient human species ‘Homo luzonensis’ in _______________, with remains being between 67,000 years to 50,000 years old.   It has 13 bones and teeth from two adults and one child found in a cave on island of Luzon in Philippines.Unlike Homo sapiens, whose premolar teeth generally have a single root, Homo luzonensis' premolars had two or three roots, similar to more primitive species such as Homo erectus, which lived in Africa and Asia between about 1.89 million and 143,000 years ago.

  1. It’s quite possible that Homo luzonensis was smaller than Homo sapiens, and perhaps even smaller than Homo floresiensis, as the study's lead author Florent Détroit, a paleoanthropologist at Paris’ Museum of Man.
  2. Homo luzonensis in many features hark back to australopithecines, upright-walking ape-like creatures that lived in Africa between two and four million years ago, as well as very early members of the genus Homo.
Philippines
China
Japan
Vietnam
None of These


27. Scientists from University of San Juan (____________________) discovered a site containing fossils of nearly a dozen dinosaurs. It is 220 million year old and belonging to an unknown era.

Brazil
Argentina
Bolivia
Bulgeria
None of These


28. Scientists in _____________________ found oldest single Human footprint at paleo-archaeological site Pilauco (Osorno), dateing back 15600 years. It can reveal new findings about human colonisation of Patagonia.

  1. It was originally excavated in 2010, after long research researchers have now ruled out animals and have confirmed that it belongs to a male adult human.
  2. An earlier footprint found at a site south of Osorno was found to be about 1,000 years more recent.
Bolivia
Bulgeria
Chile
Uganda
None of These


29. Scientists made possible birth of a nearly transparent __________________ lizard, the first gene-edited reptile.

  1. Researchers edited the immature, unfertilized eggs of brown anole lizards.
  2. Researchers typically edit with CRISPR by injecting it into a single-celled fertilized egg, creating a DNA change that is present in all subsequent cells. Female anoles are a special challenge; they store sperm in their oviducts for long periods, making it difficult to time introduction of CRISPR to fertilization.
  3. They also form eggshells at fertilization, and it’s extremely difficult to insert a needle at that stage without damaging the embryo.
  4. Researchers from University of Georgia (UGA) in Athens instead injected CRISPR complex into immature eggs still in ovaries, targeting a gene that produces tyrosinase, an enzyme that affects pigmentation.
Komodo Dragon
Mexican Beaded
Gila Monster
Snake
Anolis


30. Successful birth of a baby using DNA from three people (2 Female, 1 Male) has been reported in _________________.

  1. A similar DNA switching technique was adopted in Mexico in 2016 to avoid transmission of a mother’s hereditary illness to her child.
  2. But this case is unique owing to the fact that for the first time an IVF (in vitro fertilization) technique using DNA from three people has been deployed to allow a mother otherwise unable to conceive to have a child.
Poland
Denmark
Greece
Spain
None of These


31. Team of international scientists unveiled First ever image of a black hole, captured through Event Horizon Telescope project -

  1. The cosmic portrait belongs to black hole at center of _________________________, the largest galaxy we know so far, about 54 million light-years away.
  2. Image comes from Event Horizon Telescope, a network of 10 radio telescopes spread across planet and functioning as a single receiver.
  3. The observation and processing of the image took 2 years.
  4. Image shows boundary between light and dark around a black hole, called the event horizon - the point of no return, where the gravity of the black hole becomes so extreme that nothing that enters can ever escape (Not even light). At the center of black hole, time and space become so curved upon themselves that laws of physics break down completely.
  5. Analysis revealed that what was within the dark inner circle was rotating clockwise. This could either be the black hole itself or matter that was falling into it. mass of this black hole was calculated to be 6.5 billion times the mass of the Sun and its diameter is 100 billion kilometres.
  6. Despite the name, Black holes are not empty but instead consist of a huge amount of matter packed densely into a small area, giving it an immense gravitational pull.
Messier 27
Messier 7
Messier 187
Messier 87
None of These


32. ___________________ space flight company SpaceX carried out its first commercial launch with its Falcon Heavy rocket by placing a Saudi telecommunication satellite in orbit. This was also the first time that all three of the rocket's reusable boosters returned safely to Earth.

  1. With total 27 Merlin engines, Falcon Heavy rocket is capable of generating more than 5 million pounds (2.3 million kg) of thrust at liftoff, which is equal to about eighteen 747 aircraft or more than a dozen jetliners. 
  2. The rocket can lift a total weight of 64 tons into orbit, which is just double of the lift capacity of operational vehicle 'Delta IV Heavy.
  3. Falcon Heavy equals strength of 3 Falcon 9 rockets of SpaceX.
British
US
Russian
Polish
None of These


33. Zoologists at Trinity College Dublin discovered 2 new bird species named as Wakatobi white-eye and Wangi-Wangi white-eye in Wakatobi Archipelago of Sulawesi, ____________________.

Indonesia
Thailand
Malaysia
Vietnam
None of These




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